From East to the West

After a little over 1200 miles from New York my summer adventure has begun.  Hi folks my name is Matt Kelley and I am the 2018 summer intern for Rock Hills Ranch.  I come from a small town in New York called Cobleskill, granted it’s not nearly as small as the towns around here.  I am one of three boys in my family, and my mom reminds us every day she always wanted at least one girl.  My family owns and operates a hardware store in our hometown, but it is not your average hardware store.  Along with the hardware side of things we also have a full service lumber yard, a feed mill, rental business and sell farm and ranch equipment as well as our own meat products all under the same roof.  Another business that fills the rest of our time is the farm.  We raise registered Alpine dairy goats and also have a herd of registered Angus cows.  Growing up I had always been a part of 4-H and showing animals across the state and country.  Once I got older I really focused on the cattle side of our farm.  I worked with my animals endlessly and always looked for ways to improve our genetics and chances of winning in the show ring.  This past May, I graduated from Penn State University with a bachelors in Animal Science.  I had always planned to move back and work in my parents business with them and one day hopefully pry my father’s hands off of the reigns and run it myself.  I decided that before I do that I should get other experiences working for different managers other than my father.  So I decided to apply for this ranch internship, since I had always wanted to move West and get an inside look of how cattle country really operates.  I’ve been here for a few weeks now and have tried to hit the ground running.  This experience has been all that I had hoped.  The terrain here in the Midwest is stunning and you can never have a bad day when your office is on the four-wheeler checking cows.  The Perman’s have welcomed me very graciously to their ranch and are a great family to work for and get along with.  The four kids are a breath of fresh air after a hot day of working on the ranch.  Luke has taken the time to make sure I understand why we’re doing certain tasks.  We also have very engaging conversations and Luke always has a different way of thinking about things than I do and encourages me to think outside of the box.  All in all the internship has been a great success and I am looking forward to the rest of my summer here at Rock Hills Ranch.

Grass vs Grain: Does it have to be either/or?

If you eat beef, you no doubt are aware of the growing popularity of grassfed beef in the marketplace.  Some claim it as healthier, more environmentally friendly, etc.  Others say grainfed beef tastes better and uses fewer resources.  I’m not going to debate any of those things.  One-size-fits-all is seldom the answer to anything, I’ll leave it at that.

What I’d like to explain is something I don’t hear much about, that being what a cow was “meant” to eat.  Some say cows were made to eat grass – others say corn is a grass, and the grain is just the seeds.  So what does it all mean?  Why would some say grain is bad for cattle?

Cattle are ruminants.  This means they have a four-chambered stomach, one chamber being the rumen.  The rumen is made to digest fiber – more specifically, the rumen microbes are made to digest fiber.  When the microbes die, they provide energy for the cow to use.   Lots of microbes means lots of energy.  Forages are full of fiber.  With adequate protein, the microbes get busy breaking down the fiber and propagating, keeping the cow supplied with energy.

What about grain then?  It is a seed of grass, this is true.  What makes seeds different from leaves and stems is starch content.  Cattle eat seeds all the time.  I’ve often watched as they wrap their tongues around brome grass in June and strip all the seeds off, moving on to one stem after another, eating as much as they can.  It’s not unnatural – they are selecting the part of the plant that has the most energy.  Starch has a higher energy density than fiber.  See, cattle are really good at figuring out where the best feed is.  It’s like their life depends on it…oh wait, it does.

So what makes grain (starch) different as far as feed goes?  Cattle can handle a certain amount of starch, but beyond a certain point, the pH in the rumen becomes too acidic for the microbes to survive.  The starch in prairie grass seeds is not enough to reach that stage.   We normally supplement our calves during the winter with a small amount of grain to help meet their energy needs.  They might get 2.5 – 3 lb of corn in addition to 15-18 lbs of hay.  This isn’t enough starch to change rumen pH.

What happens once the rumen becomes too acidic and the microbes are gone?  The starch content of their diet must be great enough to make up for the missing microbes.  If it isn’t, the animal will lose weight.

Finishing rations contain a much higher percent of starch than is required to simply maintain weight.  Up to 80% of the diet might be grain.  This provides an abundance of energy to add not just muscle, but also fat – making the meat more flavorful and juicy.  The downside to diets so high in starch is that they can’t be sustained indefinitely.

Abundant energy can be obtained from high-quality forages.  The tricky part with relying on only forages for the finishing phase is they are not available year-around, and they are not as consistent in nutritional value as grains are.  A higher degree of skill and management is needed to properly finish cattle on forages as opposed to grain-based rations.

So, were cows made to eat just grass?  Not really.  They are best at digesting fiber, and can handle certain amounts of starch without any problem whatsoever.  But they are an amazing animal that can adapt to different diets, which makes them a wonderful complement to farming operations.  We can grow many different crops, and with rare exception, the cattle can eat just about all of them – seeds, stems, leaves, even roots sometimes.

Clear as mud?  If you have any other questions about grass or grain-fed beef, let us know and we’d be glad to help answer them.  We are equal-opportunity beef eaters around here, regardless of the critter’s diet!